J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2018;10(2):76-82.
doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2018.12
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Original Article

Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-V Study

Abstract

Introduction: This study presents the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.
Methods: This multi-centric study was conducted in 2015 among 4200 students aged 7–18 years. They were selected by multistage cluster sampling from 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indices, biochemical and clinical parameters were measured.
Results: The mean of weight, height, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) was higher in boys than in girls (P < 0.05). The mean of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were higher in girls than in boys (P < 0.05). The mean of weight, height, WC, SBP, DBP, alanine transaminase (ALT) and body mass index (BMI) was higher in urban than in rural residents (P < 0.05). Overall, 16.1%, 9.4% and 11.4% were underweight, overweight and obese. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls. Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of lipid profile (29.5%) followed by high serum TGs (27.7%). Low HDL-C was more prevalent in boys than in girls (32.7% vs. 26%, respectively, P < 0.05). Prevalence of obesity and overweight were higher in girls than in boys (P < 0.05). The prevalence of obesity and overweight, abdominal obesity, and low HDL-C were higher in urban than in rural residents (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: We found considerably high prevalence of some cardiometabolic risk factors including overweight and obesity, low HDL-C and hypertriglyceridemia in Iranian children and adolescents. The current findings underscore the necessity of intensifying health interventions for primordial and primary prevention of non-communicable diseases from early life.
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