Submitted: 25 Feb 2018
Accepted: 01 Sep 2018
First published online: 27 Sep 2018
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J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2018;10(3):153-161.
doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2018.25
  Abstract View: 141
  PDF Download: 114

Original Article

Association of modified Nordic diet with cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study 

Elnaz Daneshzad 1, Shaghayegh Emami 2,3, Manije Darooghegi Mofrad 1, Sahar Saraf-Bank 2, Pamela J. Surkan 4, Leila Azadbakht 1,5,2 *

1 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
4 Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
5 Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Article

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most important causes of mortality. Healthy diets can decrease CVDs and other chronic diseases especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigate association between adherence to the modified Nordic diet and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 339 type 2 diabetic patients. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, and biochemical tests were evaluated. A validated and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess dietary intake. Nordic diet scores were calculated based on median intakes of six food groups.

Results: Body mass index (BMI) was higher among participants who were in the lowest tertile of adherence to the Nordic diet (P=0.006). There was a significant association between socioeconomic status (SES) and adherence to the Nordic diet (P<0.0001). Participants who were in the top category of adherence to the diet had significantly lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.0001). There was a significant inverse association between adherence to the Nordic diet and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (odds ratio [OR]=0.29 95% CI: 0.09, 0.91, P=0.025), high systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels (OR=0.35 95% CI=0.17-0.74, P=0.015), and risk of obesity (OR=0.25 95% CI: 0.10, 0.63, P=0.03).

Conclusion: Results suggest that adherence to the Nordic diet is associated with reductions in the prevalence of obesity, LDL levels and blood pressure among type 2 diabetic patients. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Please cite this article as: Daneshzad E, Emami S, Darooghegi Mofrad M, Saraf-Bank S, Surkan PJ, Azadbakht L. Association of modified Nordic diet with cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2018;10(3):153-161. doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2018.25.
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