Submitted: 30 Oct 2017
Accepted: 05 Nov 2017
First published online: 25 Nov 2017
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J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2017;9(4):183-190.
doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2017.32
PMID: 29391930
PMCID: PMC5787329
  Abstract View: 360
  PDF Download: 423

Original Article

The effects of sodium butyrate and inulin supplementation on angiotensin signaling pathway via promotion of Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in type 2 diabetes; A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Neda Roshanravan 1, Reza Mahdavi 2, Effat Alizadeh 3, Abed Ghavami 4, Yalda Rahbar Saadat 2, Naimeh Mesri Alamdari 5, Shahriar Alipour 6, Mohammad Reza Dastouri 7, Alireza Ostadrahimi 2 *

1 Nutrition Research Center, Students Research Committee, School of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2 Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
4 Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
5 Student Research Committee, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6 Department of Molecular Medicine, Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
7 Biotechnology Institute Central Laboratory, Biotechnology and Stem Cell Institute, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey


Introduction: Inflammation has a crucial role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as an inflammatory marker induces angiotensin II (Ang II) related hypertension pathway in diabetic patients. Gut modulation via prebiotics may ameliorate hypertension caused by inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sodium butyrate (NaBut) and inulin supplements on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in type 2 diabetic patients.
Methods: In this clinical trial, 60 overweight and obese diabetic patients were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups. The groups received, respectively, 600 mg/d NaBut (group A), 10 g/d inulin powder (group B), both inulin and NaBut (group C), or placebo (group D) for 45 consecutive days. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and after intervention. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Akkermansia muciniphila was done. We assessed the TNF-α mRNA expression and the serum levels of the high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA).
Results: There was a significant increase in A. muciniphila percent change in inulin and butyrate supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, significant decrease was seen in TNF-α mRNA expression in group A (fold change 0.88 ± 0.16, P< 0.05), group B (fold change 0.75 ± 0.18, P < 0.05) and group C (fold change 0.91 ± 0.32, P < 0.05). Also hs-CRP, MDA and diastolic blood pressure levels decreased significantly in these groups (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Intervention had significant effects on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters and led to improvement of hypertension. However, further investigations are needed to make concise conclusions.
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