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Submitted: 14 Oct 2018
Revision: 18 Apr 2019
Accepted: 01 Jul 2019
ePublished: 26 Aug 2019
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J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2019;11(3): 216-223.
doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2019.36
PMID: 31579462
PMCID: PMC6759613
  Abstract View: 315
  PDF Download: 283

Original Article

Association of low-carbohydrate diet score with overweight, obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a cross-sectional study in Iranian women

Soudeh Jafari-Maram 1 ORCID logo, Elnaz Daneshzad 1 ORCID logo, Neil R. Brett 2 ORCID logo, Nick Bellissimo 2 ORCID logo, Leila Azadbakht 1,3 * ORCID logo

1 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 School of Nutrition, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
3 Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: This study aimed to determine the association of low-carbohydrate-diet score with overweight, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian women.
Methods: In healthy Iranian women 20-50 years, demographics, anthropometrics, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, blood lipids, and dietary intake (using a validated food frequency questionnaire) were assessed. Participants were divided into deciles of macronutrient intakes. Women in the lowest decile of carbohydrate intake received a score of 9 and women in the highest decile received a score of 0. For protein and fat intakes, women in the lowest decile received a score of 0 for that macronutrient and those in the highest decile received the score of 9. Macronutrient scores were summed to create the low-carbohydrate diet score and women were grouped into tertiles based on these scores. Continuous and qualitative variables were compared among the low-carbohydrate-diet score by one-way ANOVA and chi-square test, respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of low-carbohydrate-diet score and cardiovascular risk factors.
Results: A total of 209 women were included in the study. Socioeconomic status significantly increased from tertile 1 to 3 of the low-carbohydrate diet score (P = 0.02). Total dietary glycemic index (GI) significantly differed among tertiles (tertile 1 GI: 63.1 ±0.50, tertile 2 GI: 61.9 ± 0.5, tertile 3 GI: 59.5 ± 0.5; P < 0.001). The odds ratios for overweight, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly different among the tertiles of low-carbohydrate diet score. Conclusion: In Iranian women, diets lower in carbohydrate and higher in protein and fat were not associated with overweight, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors.
Keywords: Low-Carbohydrate Diet, Overweight, Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease, Women
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