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Submitted: 07 Apr 2020
Revision: 02 Sep 2020
Accepted: 20 Oct 2020
ePublished: 28 Nov 2020
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J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2020;12(4): 294-302.
doi: 10.34172/jcvtr.2020.48
  Abstract View: 66
  PDF Download: 63

Original Article

The association between dietary pattern and coronary artery disease: A case-control study

Esmaeel Gholizadeh ORCID logo, Parvin Ayremlou ORCID logo, Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou* ORCID logo

Abstract

Introduction: Dietary patterns are an important factors in the progress of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to assess the association between dietary patterns and coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods: A case-control study was carried on 550 participants. Food expenditure was collected using a validated 168-item food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted by principal component analysis (PCA). Multiple logistic regressions was used to assess the association between dietary patterns and the risk of CAD.
Results: Three major dietary patterns were identified: the “Quasi-Western Pattern” was characterized by higher intakes of sweets and desserts, snacks, legumes, honey or jam, ketchup, mayonnaise, yellow vegetables, potatoes, red meat, refined grains; the “Sugar and Fast foods Pattern” was characterized by higher intakes of sugar, soft drinks, fast foods, high-fat dairy, hydrogenated fats, and the “Quasi-Mediterranean Pattern” was characterized by higher intakes of fruits, cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, nuts, coffee. In both sexes, the “Quasi-Western Pattern” and the “Sugar and Fast foods Pattern” were positively associated with the risk of CAD. For “Quasi-Western Pattern”, adjusted-ORs were (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.99-1.83, P = 0.05) and (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.03-1.83, P = 0.03)for men and women respectively. The ORs were for “Sugar and Fast foods Pattern” (OR: 3.64, 95% CI:2.25-5.89, P < 0.001) and (OR: 3.91, 95% CI: 2.42-6.63, P < 0.001) for men and women respectively.There was a significant inverse relationship among “Quasi-Mediterranean pattern” and CAD in the crude model in women (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.55-0.89, P = 0.0.004).
Conclusion: High adherence to the “Quasi-Western Pattern” and “Sugar-Fast foods Pattern” dietary patterns were associated with a higher risk of CAD. The “Quasi-Mediterranean pattern” reduced the risk of CAD.
Keywords: Dietary Pattern, Coronary Artery Disease, Cardiovascular Diseases, Principal Component Analysis
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