Submitted: 04 Feb 2021
Revision: 04 Nov 2021
Accepted: 04 Nov 2021
ePublished: 23 Nov 2021
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J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2021;13(4): 265-276.
doi: 10.34172/jcvtr.2021.50

Scopus ID: 85123548409
  Abstract View: 473
  PDF Download: 485
  Full Text View: 125

Review Article

Safety and effectiveness of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) in refractory angina patients: A systematic reviews and meta-analysis

Seyed Mansoor Rayegani 1 ORCID logo, Saeed Heidari 2, Majid Maleki 3 ORCID logo, Maryam Seyed-Nezhad 4 ORCID logo, Maryam Heidari 5, Seyed Ehsan Parhizgar 3 ORCID logo, Mohammad Moradi-Joo 6* ORCID logo

1 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 State Welfare Organization of Iran, Director General of Welfare of Kermanshah Province, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Cardiogenetic Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
6 National Center for Health Insurance Research, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding Author: Mohammad Moradi-Joo, Email: , Email: moradi2011@yahoo.com


Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is believed to be a non-invasive treatment for coronary artery disease and angina. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of EECP in refractory angina patients through a systematic reviews and meta-analysis. We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature published on PubMed, Cochrane library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Trip Database and Google Scholar databases using appropriate keywords and specific strategy with no time limit. Having selected and screened the studies based on the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and evaluating their quality based on the Cochrane checklist. For the meta-analysis,the Mantel-Haenszel method or the generic Inverse Variance was used. Analyses were done with Review Manager 5.2 software. A number of 299 studies were initially reviewed and finally, seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Also, thirteen outcomes were analyzed and the results of meta-analysis in twelve outcomes including (Systolic Blood Pressure (7 studies), Diastolic Blood Pressure (7 studies), Pulse Pressure (4 studies), Mean Arterial Pressures (4 studies), Heart Rate (6 studies), Angina episodes (7 studies), Walking distance (2 studies),Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification (6 studies), Flow-Mediated Dilation (3 studies), Daily Nitrate Usage (4 studies), Exercise Treadmill Test-Time (2 studies), ST-segment depression (2 studies)demonstrated a significant clinical advantage in the EECP treatment effectiveness in patients with angina. No significant difference was observed regarding EECP usefulness (P = 0.18) in the outcome of brachial artery diameter (2 studies). Based on the meta-analysis, the results indicate the safety and effectiveness of EECP in patients with angina pectoris and indicate the usefulness of this treatment in these patients. In general, the authors believe that the general conclusion in this regard requires some studies with a large sample size and a control group assignment.

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