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Submitted: 17 Apr 2023
Revision: 06 Oct 2023
Accepted: 27 Nov 2023
ePublished: 30 Dec 2023
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J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2023;15(4): 223-230.
doi: 10.34172/jcvtr.2023.31844
PMID: 38357561
PMCID: PMC10862034
  Abstract View: 307
  PDF Download: 445

Original Article

Evaluation of MMP-9, IL-6, TNF-α levels and peripheral blood mononuclear cells genes expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in Iranian patients with coronary artery disease

Tooran Akbari 1 ORCID logo, Toktam Kazemi Fard 1, Reza Fadaei 2, Rahim Rostami 3 ORCID logo, Nariman Moradi 4, Monireh Movahedi 1, Soudabeh Fallah 3* ORCID logo

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
3 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Soudabeh Fallah, Email: Fallah.s@iums.ac.ir

Abstract

Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of death and is characterized by atherosclerosis in coronary arteries. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the progression and development of atherosclerosis.

Methods: The present study consisted of 132 Iranian individuals who underwent coronary angiography, 65 patients with CAD, and 67 controls. The matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), TNF-α, IL-6, and vitamin D serum levels were measured by the ELISA technique. The gene expression of MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) was estimated by real-time PCR assay.

Results: A considerable increase in levels and PBMC gene expression of MMP-9 and serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were found in CAD patients compared with controls. A significant decrease was detected in vitamin D levels of CAD patients in comparison with controls. A considerable direct correlation was found between MMP-9 levels and MMP-9 and TIMP1 gene expression in CAD patients. MMP-9 levels positively correlated with LDL-C in CAD patients. The correlation between TIMP1 gene expression and IL-6 levels was also negatively significant. There were positive correlations between MMP-9 levels with IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels in CAD patients.

Conclusion: This study showed that the interaction between MMPs, TIMP1, and cytokines could play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study suggested that high levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and vitamin D deficiency in our studied patients could disturb the MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance and lipid metabolism, leading to plaque formation/ rupture in predisposed CAD patients.

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